Author : Ivana Vancurova (eds.)
Description:Cytokines are pleiotropic regulatory proteins involved in essentially all biological processes and associated with a wide variety of diseases, including inflammatory disorders as well as many types of cancer and leukemia. Knowledge about the quantitative and qualitative nature of cytokine production is critical in the understanding of normal and pathological processes. The cytokine detection in biological and clinical samples faces many challenges including their low abundance, the need to distinguish between active and latent cytokine forms, and the need to measure multiple cytokines in a single assay. This volume will provide a comprehensive collection of classic and cutting-edge methodologies that are currently used to analyze and quantify cytokines and their biological activities in complex biological and clinical samples. The chapters are divided into four main categories. The first group focuses on the immunodetection of released cytokines in tissue culture supernatants, plasma, serum and whole blood samples by immunoassays. These immunoassays measure the total concentrations of released cytokines regardless of their biological activity and include ELISA, flow cytometry, ELISPOT and the antibody-based proximity ligation. The second group will focus on the analysis of biologically active cytokines by bioassays using neutralizing antibodies, chemotaxis assay, cytokine-induced cell degranulation assay, cell proliferation and differentiation, cytokine-induced cytokine production and the radioreceptor cytokine assay. The third group focuses on the analysis of intracellular cytokines by flow cytometry, western blotting and fluorescence and confocal microscopy. In addition, this category includes protocols for quantitative analysis of cytokine gene expression by real time RT-PCR and analysis of the cytokine promoter occupancy by chromatin immunoprecipitation. The fourth group focuses on the recently developed multiplex arrays that can measure multiple cytokines in the same sample at the same time. This group includes quantification of multiple cytokines using cytometric bead arrays, ELISPOT assays, proteomics cytokine evaluation, multiplexed proximity ligation assays for high-throughput cytokine analysis and finally, cytokine gene expression analysis by gene arrays. The protocols will be written by experienced basic and clinical researchers with hands-on knowledge of the described protocols. By covering a broad variety of methods used in cytokine detection and analysis, this book will be of interest not only to biochemists, molecular biologists and immunologists but also to physician-scientists working in the field of cytokine research.